Electricity from Nuclear.   Fire from Synthetic Biofuels.

Climate Change is a chemistry problem.             Guidance for Evolving Our Energy Systems in the face of Climate Change, Rising Energy Demand, and Legacy Infrastructure.

Advanced nuclear + synthetic CO2-neutral biofuels could completely replace coal, oil, and natural gas.
The Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass Energy System 
(slide presentation)

What this web site is about.
(Click to enlarge.):                                 Contents  >

Perspective: "The rising carbon dioxide footprint may be troublesome, but it is a side effect of the creation of immense benefits." - Peter Allitt, quoted by M.J. Kelly.
Energy is the master resource. Without energy nothing happens. The more energy we have, the richer we are. The United States is a 10,000 Watt society; Mexico, 2,000 W; Haiti, 500W.
There is a better reason than Climate Change to decarbonize our energy: 

We need the advanced nuclear and advanced combustion fuels that are cheaper, better, more powerful than fossil   

Executive summary:
Two senior scientists with chemistry backgrounds, Dr. George A. Olah and Dr. Charles W. Forsberg, suggest making CO2-neutral biofuels by using air's CO2 extracted from plants.
Both scientists cover the subject extremely well but in different ways. The image above shows how Climate Change's growth can be stopped and possibly reversed.

Fossil fuel fires will disappear one way or another in the long run. Most of civilization's future electrical and heat energy will be supplied by a
nuclear-hydrogen-biomass system.
Our heat will originate as nuclear fission, be stored in CO2-neutral biomass molecules made from air's CO2, and be released as it is now - as fire, as needed, by CO2-neutral combustion.
Nuclear heat is the only practical thermal alternative to fossil fuel heat. Energy manufacture on a global scale will take many nuclear reactors and substantial amounts of nuclear fuel.
Having unlimited nuclear heat changes everything. The energy strategy could be as lavish as necessary with nuclear heat and as frugal as possible with biomass's carbon-neutral carbon.
A billion tons of biomass carbon per year may be available in the U.S. alone for gasification by plasma pyrolysis for use as CO2 feedstock for synthesizing CO2-neutral methanols, etc. 

Fortunately, we have all the nuclear fuel we will ever need, several better ways to dispose of nuclear's waste, and, best of all, the technologies to make it all happen quickly already exist.

Dr. Forsberg's slides show how: Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System - Slides - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf    Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System - Paper - Dr Charles W. Forsberg .pdf
There is sufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid-fuel needs if the energy and hydrogen inputs for biomass-to-fuel processing plants are provided by advanced nuclear energy.

Neither Dr. Olah nor Dr. Forsberg have any connection to this web site.
Your author, an EE, is working to stop Climate Change by identifying and describing to the public the industrial equipment he thinks will be needed to make the above vision a reality.


1.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by Nuclear-Hydrogen-Biomass energy look like?

This web site's rough order-of-magnitude guesstimate for ALL global energy - both electricity AND heat - for the world by 2050:
  2,000 large 1,500 megaWatt water cooled and/or molten salt cooled (also called "Liquid Fission") nuclear reactors for mega-city electricity.
5,000 500 mW(e) ThorCon coal-boiler-to-nuclear conversion steam generators to quickly and cheaply fix the 2% of large coal power plants that are making 30% of all Climate Change.
300 "ThorConIsles" barge mounted nuclear power plants for coastal populations in second and third world countries to preempt the building of over 2,000 new coal power plants.
150,000 medium 300 to 25 mW molten salt cooled nuclear reactors for smaller city electricity.
  100,000 small 50 to 5 mW helium cooled very high temperature pebble bed nuclear reactors (VHTR) for both carbon-neutral liquid fuel and gas heating fuel synthesis processes.
  One or more islands in the Ross Sea (Antarctica) plus the Sub-seabed Solution for isolation of radioactive worn-out nuclear reactors, nuclear barge power plants, waste nuclear fuel.
  5,000 nuclear powered sea water desalinators for both cities and agriculture.
  Miscellaneous small sources of intermittent wind, solar, and hydro electricity.
  600+ VHTR nuclear-powered carbon-neutral combustion biofuel refineries evolved from  today's oil refineries
 producing unlimited volumes of "drop-in" gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, and heating gas.  These would be synthetic combustion fuels beyond carbon-neutral fossil fuels that are either half as expensive or twice as powerful.
For the United States, the "Billion Ton Biomass" program needs to be dedicated to supplying biomass to the nuclear powered carbon-neutral combustion fuel refineries - not burning it.  
Object Total: 262,900 - That's 262 thousand, 900, folks!
 The more objects, the less likely it will happen, the more expensive and less reliable it will be.
Reference:  World electric power plant reference:  Perhaps the most complete database of it's type.

  Oh, yes, and the progression of Climate Change would be stopped and perhaps partially reversed.

2.  What would a modern industrialized world powered only by Wind, Water, and Solar energy look like?

Stanford University is looking at what it might take to provide all global energy using only wind, water, and solar power:
2.5 million 5-mW wind turbines (60/40 mix of on- and off-shore) (37%)
  409,000 0.75-mW wave generators (0.5%)
  935 100-mW geothermal plants (0.7%)
  1,058 1.300 -mW hydroelectric plants (4%)
  30,000 1-mW tidal turbines (0.06%)
  1.8 billion 5-kW residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems (15%)
  75 million 100-kW commercial PV systems (12%)
  250,000 50-mW solar PV plants (21%)
  21,500 100-mW concentrating solar power (CSP) plants with thermal storage (10%)
  13,000 100-mW CSP plants with thermal storage (additional for grid support)
  85,000 50-mW solar thermal storage plants (for direct heating) 
Object Total: 1,878,310,493 - That's 1 billion, 878 million, 310 thousand, 493, folks!  The more objects, the less likely it will happen, the more expensive and less reliable it will be.
Reference: 199 page pdf draft:  [].This is a valuable work-in-progress, well worth studying if only to learn the mindset of those opposed to nuclear. 

3. For a THIRD scenario check out: 


Disclaimer: This web site is energy talk by an engineer exploring Climate Change educational concepts, not professional engineering advice. contact  co     Plasma Gasification of Biomass

Principally all carbon and hydrogen atoms from biomass can be used for syngas production if biomass is heated to sufficiently high temperature (molecular dissociation). Maximum biomass to syngas conversion efficiency is achieved if all carbon is oxidized to CO. As most of biomass materials contain more carbon atoms than oxygen atoms, some oxygen has to be added to gasify all carbon.
This can be done by addition of oxygen, air, steam or CO2.
- Milan Hrabovsky, Institute of Plasma Physics